Jesus and Divinity
“Thou shall worship the Lord thy God, and him only shall thou serve.”(Luke;4:8);“Certainly they have disbelieved who say:" God is Christ, the son of Mary." While Christ himself said: "O children of
Jesus Christ & Divinity?
Throughout his short ministry spread around three years, Jesus Christ preached monotheism, the basic message of guidance preached and practiced by all the previous messengers of God from Noah, Abraham and Moses, (peace be upon them all): ‘Surrender to the Will of God’ and worship Him alone. Jesus told the Jews: “If you were Abraham's children, you would do the works of Abraham.”(Jesus,John;8:39). “Abraham "believed God, and it was reckoned to him as righteousness." So you see that it is men of faith who are the sons of Abraham.”(Glatians;3:6-7), “Abraham was not a Jew, nor yet a Christian; but he was an upright man who had surrendered (to Allah), and he was not of the idolaters.”(Qur’an;3:67). After his ascent, the followers of Jesus Christ continue to live as Jews and practiced what Jesus had taught them. There was nothing in the message of Jesus, as understood by them, to necessitate a break with Judaism. However later especially the new converts in frenzy to convert gentiles, introduced pagan doctrines by raising Jesus Christ to the level of divinity. This has been and still remains the topic of intense debate from last 2000 years. An analysis of such a claim in the light of the Holy Scriptures, The Bible and Qur’an is revealing. Jesus Christ had said: “Why don't you judge for yourselves what is right?”(Luke;)
Research By: Brigadier (R) Aftab
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Humanity, Religion, Culture, Ethics, Science, Spirituality & Peace
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In the name of Allah The Most Gracious The Most Merciful
Jesus and Divinity?
Jesus Christ was the Prophet of God, sent to Israelites to guide them and to facilitate to live according to the Law of Moses. He was born miraculously to Virgin Mary without father. He performed miracles and wonders with the blessings of God, but the Jews did not believe in him. They conspired to kill him, but God raised him to Himself alive. After ascent of Jesus Christ, his followers continued to live as Jews and practiced what Jesus had taught them. There was nothing in the message of Jesus, as understood by them, to necessitate a break with Judaism. However some of the followers of Jesus Christ (not all) especially the new converts like Saul (Paul) subsequently changed the teachings of Jesus, by evolving pagan concepts like Trinity, and raising Jesus to the level of divinity being ‘Son of God’ [the term metaphorically in vogue among Hebrews for ‘pious people, prophets’ and ‘men of God’]. These wrong concepts did not have any solid basis from the existing Scriptures [Torah, Psalms and other books of prophets, later known as Hebrew Bible, (Old Testament) and Gospel, the actual revelations to Jesus Christ]. However God again rejected these doctrines through His last scripture, Qur’an and last Messenger Muhammad (peace be upon him) but they persist to deny like the Jews denied Jesus Christ. The teachings of Jesus Christ were no different to the teachings of previous messengers from Adam, Noah, Abraham, Isaac, Ishmael, Jacob and Moses: ‘Surrender to the Will of God’ and worship Him alone: “Abraham "believed God, and it was reckoned to him as righteousness." So you see that it is men of faith who are the sons of Abraham.”(Glatians;3:6-7).“If you were Abraham’s children, you would do what Abraham did.”(Jesus,John;8:39). “Abraham was not a Jew, nor yet a Christian; but he was an upright man who had surrendered (to Allah), and he was not of the idolaters.”(Qur’an;3:67).
If Christian is the one who follows the teachings of Jesus, then Muslims are more Christians than those who call themselves as Christians because they follow the teachings of Jesus Christ which like all other prophets were based upon monotheism (Tawheed). Jesus Christ, the son of Mary is the only prophet of God who has been claimed to be divine by main groups of his followers lead by self declared disciple and Apostle Paul (Saul, a Jew who was actively involved in persecution of early followers of Jesus, but later converted, claming on vision). They support their claim from various verses form the Bible. A study of the Christian scriptures reveals that Prophet Jesus (peace be upon him) never claimed divinity, being a prophet of God for the Jews, he performed his mission sincerely. In fact there is not a single unequivocal statement in the entire Bible where Prophet Jesus (peace be upon him) himself says, "I Am God" Or Where He Says, "Worship Me". Actuality the Bible contains statements attributed to Prophet Jesus (peace be upon him) in which he preached quite the contrary: (John;, John;, Mathew;, Luke;, John;, Mathew;-17, Luke;24:39-43). God says in Qur’an: “O people of the Book! Commit no excesses in your religion: nor say of God aught but truth. Christ Jesus the son of Mary was (no more than) an Apostle of God and His Word which He bestowed on Mary and a Spirit proceeding from Him: so believe in God and His Apostles. Say not "Trinity": desist: it will be better for you: for God is One God: glory be to him: (for Exalted is He) above having a son. To him belong all things in the heavens and on earth. And enough is God as a Disposer of affairs.(Qur’an;4:171). The critical examination of the most common arguments given by Christians to support their claim of divinity of Jesus will reveal, whether the existing concepts are in line or against the clearly stated mission and teachings of Jesus in the Gospels.
Jesus, The Messenger of God For Jews: The divinity of Jesus is negated, due to his status as Prophet of God for the Israelites, like many prophets sent for them previously by God. It is mentioned in Qur’an: “He (Jesus) said: "I am indeed a servant of God: He hath given me revelation and made me a prophet;” (Qura’n;). The Bible also clearly indicates that he was sent by God as His messenger: “… I was not sent but unto the lost sheep of the house of
Jesus Repeatedly Emphasized Prophethood: Jesus repeatedly emphasized his Prophethood: “He who receives you receives me, and he who receives me receives him who sent me. He who receives a prophet because he is a prophet shall receive a prophet's reward, and he who receives a righteous man because he is a righteous man shall receive a righteous man's reward.” (Matthew; -41), Jesus said:” And this is eternal life, that they know thee the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom thou hast sent.”(John;17:3), “Jesus said to them, "My food is to do the will of him who sent me, and to accomplish his work.” (John;).“So Jesus answered them, "My teaching is not mine, but his who sent me; if any man's will is to do his will, he shall know whether the teaching is from God or whether I am speaking on my own authority.”(John;-17), “So Jesus proclaimed, as he taught in the temple, "You know me, and you know where I come from? But I have not come of my own accord; he who sent me is true, and him you do not know.”(John;); “Then they took away the stone from the place where the dead was laid. And Jesus lifted up his eyes, and said, Father, I thank you that you have heard me. And I knew that you hear me always: but because of the people who stand by I said it, that they may believe that you have sent me”(John;-42), and “Truly, truly, I say to you, a servant is not greater than his master; nor is he who is sent greater than he who sent him.” (John;113:16). "And remember, Jesus, the son of Mary, said, 'O Children of Israel! I am the messenger of God (sent) to you, confirming the Law (which came) before me and giving glad tidings of a messenger to come after me, whose name shall be Ahmed.' But when he came to them with clear signs, they said, 'This is evident sorcery!”(Qur’an;61:6).[Ahmed" or "Muhammad" meaning "the one who praises" or "the praised one" is almost the translation of the Greek word PERICLYTOS. In the Gospel of John;, , and 16:7, Jesus (peace be upon him) actually prophesized “Ahmed” by name, word 'Comforter' in Greek PARACLETOS, PERICLYTOS refers to Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him)].
Analysis of Claims of Divinity of Jesus: There are a number of verses from Bible, which have been interpreted by the Catholic and
God Need Not to Say, He is God: It is argued that God is not required to say that He is God, like a doctor does not keep saying he is a doctor, so Jesus Christ did not say openly that he was God. It is well known fact that a person becomes a doctor after prolonged studies and efforts well known to people all around. God has His signs which prove His existence. As God says: “O Mankind! Worship your Lord Who created you and created those who came before you; by doing this you may expect to guard yourself against evil.”(Qur’an;). Similarly it is mentioned in the Bible: “And Jesus answered and said unto him, It is written, Thou shall worship the Lord thy God, and him only shall thou serve.”(Luke;4:8). Hence if Jesus asks his followers to worship the God, he would have also asked them to worship him if he claimed to be God but he did not do so because he knew that he was not God but His messenger.
Seen Me, Seen Father: Jesus said that: ‘he who seen me has seen the Father’ so it is argued that he was divine. According to the Gospel of John: “Philip said to him, "Lord, show us the Father, and we shall be satisfied." Jesus said to him, "Have I been with you so long, and yet you do not know me, Philip? He who has seen me has seen the Father; how can you say, `Show us the Father'?”(John;14:8-9). This verse once read in conjunction with other verses the matter gets clarified: “No one has ever seen God; the only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has made him known.”(John;), “They said to him therefore, "Where is your Father?" Jesus answered, "You know neither me nor my Father; if you knew me, you would know my Father also.”(John;), “Jesus answered him, "If a man loves me, he will keep my word, and my Father will love him, and we will come to him and make our home with him. He who does not love me does not keep my words; and the word which you hear is not mine but the Father's who sent me.”(John;-24), “He who hates me hates my Father also.”(John;). “They said to him therefore, "Where is your Father?" Jesus answered, "You know neither me nor my Father; if you knew me, you would know my Father also.”(John;), “Not that any one has seen the Father except him who is from God; he has seen the Father. Truly, truly, I say to you, he who believes has eternal life.”(John;6:46-47).
It is evident that; No one has ever seen God, phrase ‘seeing God’ is not used in lateral sense but metaphorically. Hence here, ‘seeing God’ means knowing, loving, believing and acting on the will of God (perform good deeds) and his prophet, Jesus. God says: “O believers! Obey God, obey the Prophet (Qura’n;).
Thomas Said ‘My Lord My God’: After the episode of crucifixion (crucifiction), Thomas, one of the disciples of Jesus did not believe that Jesus was alive, till he puts his fingers in the wounds of Jesus. Eight days later, Jesus walks once more into the upper-room, and he finds Thomas there this time: “Then he said to Thomas, "Put your finger here, and see my hands; and put out your hand, and place it in my side; do not be faithless, but believing.”(John;).Thomas realizes the heel he has been. He had signally rejected every proof that Jesus was alive! Every other disciple, beside Judas Iscariot the traitor, had testified that they had seen Jesus and felt him and eaten food with him, but Thomas would not believe! What would he not believe? That the living, pulsating Jesus was making his rounds - Not a ghost of Jesus. Now, being confronted with the physical reality of his presence, demonstrating his physical, material body, he was forced to exclaim: “My Lord and my God!” (John;). The mark of exclamation (!) was not there in King James Version of Bible, but after thorough research, it has been placed in ‘Revised Standard Version’ of Bible. Did Thomas realize at that juncture that Jesus Christ was his Jehovah? Did he and the other disciples fall down in prostration before him? Never! His words were the words of self-reproach commonly uttered by people in routine, if some one missed the train and say; “My God! I missed the train!” It does not imply that the listener is being addressed as God. Hence the incidence does not prove the divinity of Jesus.
The Alpha and Omega: Jesus claimed divinity, the argument goes, when he said: “I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the ending, said the Lord, which is, and which was, and which is to come, the Almighty.” (King James Version; Revelation;1:8). Alpha (The 1st), Omega (the last) are the attributes of God. However in the Revised Standard Version, biblical scholars corrected the translation and wrote: “I am the Alpha and the Omega,” says the Lord God, who is and who was and who is to come, the Almighty.” (RSV;Revelation;1:8). A correction was also made in the New American Bible produced by Catholics. The translation of that verse has been amended to put it in its correct context as follows: “The Lord God says: ‘I am the Alpha and the Omega, the one who is and who was, and who is to come, the Almighty.’ ” Hence after this correction, it becomes evident that this was a statement of God wrongly attributed to Jesus.
The Pre-Existence of Christ- ‘I Am’: It is claimed that Jesus is divine because he existed prior to his appearance on earth: “Jesus said unto them, ‘Verily, verily, I say unto you, Before Abraham was, I am.”(John;). However, the concept of the pre-existence of the prophets and of man in general, exists in both the Qur’an and the Old Testament: “Now the word of the Lord came to me saying, ‘Before I formed you in the womb I knew you, and before you were born I consecrated you; I appointed you a prophet to the nations.”(Jeremiah;1:4-5). Prophet Solomon said: “Ages ago I was set up at the first, before the beginning of the earth. When there were no depths I was brought forth, when there were no springs abounding with water, Before the mountains had been shaped, before the hills, I was brought forth; before he had made the earth with its fields, or the first of the dust of the world When he established the heavens, I was there.”(Proverbs;8:23-27). God addressed Prophet Job: “Where were you when I laid the foundation of the earth? Tell me, if you have understanding... You Know, for you were born then, and the number of your days is great!” to (Job;38:4 & 21). In the Qur’an, God says: “When your Lord gathered all of Adam’s descendants (before creation) and made them bear witness for themselves, saying: ‘Am I not your Lord?’ They all replied: Yes indeed, we bear witness. [That was] so you could not say on the Day of Judgment: ‘We were unaware of this.” (Qur’an;7:172). Accordingly, the statement of Prophet Jesus; “Before Abraham was, I am,” cannot be used as evidence of his divinity. Jesus ostensibly have spoken about God’s knowledge of His prophets, which predates the creation of this world in the perspective of John;-58.
The ‘One with God’: While quoting out of context, Jesus is reported to have said, “I and the Father are one.”(John;), hence he is considered to be claiming divinity. However, when the Jews accused him of claiming divinity, based on that statement, “Jesus answered them, ‘Is it not written in your law, “I said, Ye are gods?” He clarified for them, with a scriptural example well known to them, that he was using the metaphorical language of the prophets which should not be interpreted as ascribing divinity to himself or to other human beings. Further evidence is drawn, whereby people asked Jesus to show them the Father, and he reportedly said: “Do you not believe that I am in the Father and the Father in me? The words that I say to you I do not speak on my own authority; but the Father who dwells in me does his works. Believe me that I am in the Father and the Father in me; or else believe me for the sake of the works themselves.” (John;14:10-11).
These expressions would imply Jesus’ divinity, if the rest of the Gospel of John is disregarded because, Jesus is also recorded as saying to his disciples, “In that day you will know that I am in my Father, and you in me, and I in you.”(John;). Thus, combined result of Jesus’ statements at (John;14:10-11) and (John;14:20) is that: Jesus was with the Father and Father in Jesus, disciples of Jesus in Jesus and Jesus in them (disciples), hence Father in Jesus and all his 12 disciples, ‘all one’; 14 Gods![1+1+12=14] Jesus did not mean physical union. These symbolic statements mean oneness of purpose and not oneness of essence. The symbolic interpretation is further accentuated when Jesus said, “I do not pray for these only, but also for those who believe in me through their word, that they may all be one; even as thou, Father, art in me, and I in thee, that they also may be in us, so that the world may believe that thou has sent me.” (John;17:20-21).
In the Beginning was the ‘Word’: The most frequently quoted ‘proof’ for Jesus’ divinity is: “In the beginning was the ‘Word’, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God....And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, full of grace and truth...” (John;1:1&14). It is to be kept in view that, these statements were not made by Jesus Christ, nor were they attributed to him by the author of the Gospel according to John. Consequently, these verses do not constitute evidence for Jesus’ divinity, especially considering the doubts held by Christian scholars about the Fourth Gospel. Most of the Bible scholars opine that: “The two pictures painted by John and the synoptic gospels (i.e., the Gospels of Matthew, Mark & Luke) cannot both be historically accurate....The words attributed to Jesus in the Fourth Gospel are the creation of the evangelist for the most part, and reflect the developed language of John’s Christian community.”
Logos: The Greek term used by the anonymous author of the Fourth Gospel (according to John) for “word” is logos. In doing so, the author identifies Jesus with the pagan logos of Greek philosophy, which was the divine reason implicit in the cosmos, ordering it and giving it form and meaning. The idea of the logos in Greek thought may be traced back at least to the 6th-century-BC philosopher, Heracleitus, who proposed that there was a ‘logos’ in the cosmic process analogous to the reasoning power in man. Later, the Stoics [Stoics; are members of a Greek school of philosophy, founded by Zeno about 308 B.C., believing that human beings should be free from passion and should calmly accept all occurrences as the unavoidable result of divine will or of the natural order.] defined the logos as an active, rational and spiritual principle that permeated all reality. The Greek-speaking Jewish philosopher, Judaeus Philo of Alexandria (15 BC-45 CE), taught that the logos was the intermediary between God and the cosmos, being both the agent between God and the cosmos, being both the agent of creation and the agent through which the human mind can comprehend God. The writings of Philo were preserved and cherished by the Church, and provided the inspiration for a sophisticated Christian philosophical theology. He departed from Platonic thought regarding the Logos (Word) and called it “the first-begotten Son of God”.
The identification of Jesus with the ‘Logos’ was further developed in the early Church as a result of attempts made by early Christian theologians and apologists to express the Christian faith in terms that would be intelligible to the Hellenistic world. Moreover, it was to impress their hearers with the view that Christianity was superior to, or heir to, all that was best in pagan philosophy. Thus, in their apologies and polemical works, the early Christian Fathers stated that Christ was the ‘Preexistent Logos’.
The Greek word for ‘God’ used in the phrase “and the Word was with God,” is the definite form hotheos, meaning ‘The God’. However, in the second phrase “and the Word was God”, the Greek word used for ‘God’ is the indefinite form theos, which also means ‘a god’. Consequently, John;1:1, should more accurately be translated, “In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was a god.” Therefore, if the Word was a ‘god’ in the literal sense, it would mean that there were two Gods and not one. However, in Biblical language, the term ‘god’ is used metaphorically to indicate power. For example, Paul referred to the devil as “god”in 2nd Corinthians;4:4, “In their case the god of this world has blinded the minds of the unbelievers, to keep them from seeing the light of the gospel of the glory of Christ, who is the likeness of God.” Moses is also referred to as “god” in Exodus;7:1, “And the Lord said unto Moses, ‘See, I have made thee a god to Pharaoh; and Aaron thy brother shall be thy prophet.” Jesus is clearly mentioned as a man and messenger of God: “Ye men of Israel, hear these words: Jesus of Nazareth, a man approved of God unto you by mighty works and wonders and signs which God did by him in the midst of you, even as ye yourselves know”(Acts;2:22).
‘Word’ As Command: Miraculous birth of Jesus through ‘Word form God’ has been mentioned: “When the angels said "O Mary! God gives you the good news through a Word from Him (kalimah min -hu) that you will be given a son: his name will be Messiah, (Jesus Christ) the son of Mary...”(Qur’an;). “She said: "O my Lord! how shall I have a son when no man hath touched me?" He said: "Even so: God creates what He Wills; whenever He decides to do anything, He only says (Word) it to 'Be' and it is!.”(Qur’an;). Similarly, the act of creation through command (word) is also mentioned in Bible: “And God said, Let there be light: and there was light.”(Genisis;1:3), “And God said, Let the waters swarm with swarms of living creatures, and let birds fly above the earth in the open firmament of heaven” .”(Genisis;).“for in him all things were created, in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or authorities- all things were created through him and for him.”(Clossians;).
Hence the ‘Word form God’ implies ‘the Order of Creation’ by God through His word or command. The word or command of God can not be equated with God as the revelations to the messengers are words of God but not God. The Word is of God, it is His but not Him. If Mr. X says ‘pen’, the word ‘pen’ is the word by Mr. X but ‘pen’ is not Mr. X himself.
Son of God: It is claimed that since Jesus is the only begotten son of God and the son is like father, so Jesus is divine. According to the Bible of King James Version of 1611 : “For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life”(John;3:16). According to the Greek Dictionary of The New Testament’; by James Strong The word ‘Son’ is the English translation of word; hwee-os’; used in the ancient Greek script, means a “son” (sometimes of animals), used very widely of immediate, remote or figurative kinship: child, foal, son. he word ‘begotten’ used here (John;3:16) has been expunged in the Revised Standard Version of Bible, being wrongly added because word ‘begotten’ does not exist in the original Greek script. “Beloved, let us love one another; for love is of God, and he who loves is born of God and knows God.”(1John;4:7). Here, ‘born’ is the translation of Greek: ghen-nah’-o; meaning: ‘to procreate [properly of the father, but by extension of the mother; figurative to regenerate: bear, be born, bring forth, conceive, be delivered of, gender, make, spring; Translation from ‘Greek Dictionary of The New Testament’; by James Strong]. According to this verse, the millions of people who love God, are born of God, obviouslyghen-nah’(beget) has been used metaphorically, in the sense of knowing and closeness to God, like at John;.
Expression: Son of God as Servant of God: The Hebrews believed that God is ONE, and had neither wife nor children in any literal sense; hence it is obvious that the expression “son of God” merely meant to them “Servant of God”; one who, because of his faithful service, was close and dear to God, as a son is to a father. Christians who came from a Greek and Roman background, later misused this term. In their heritage, “son of God” signified an incarnation of a god or someone born of a physical union between male and female gods. When the Church cast aside its Hebrew foundations, it adopted the pagan concept of “son of God”, which was entirely different from the Hebrew usage. Consequently, the use of the term “son of God” should only be understood from the Semitic symbolic sense of a “servant of God”, and not in the pagan sense of a literal offspring of God. In the four Gospels, Jesus is recorded as saying: “Blessed are the peace-makers; they will be called sons of God.”(Mathew;5:9), “For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, they are the sons of god.”(Romans; 8:14). The term ‘Son of God’ has been used numerously for people near to God like Prophet Jacob, Solomon, David in the Bible. (Some references are; 2nd Samuel 8:13-14, Psalms 89:26-27: of Job 1:6, “Psalms 2:7, in Luke 4:41, Hosea;1:10, Jeremiah;31:9, Job;2:1,38:4-7, Genesis;6:2, Deuteronomy;14:1, Luke;3:38, Exodus;4:22-23, 2Samuel;8:13-14, Psalms;2:7, 89:26-27, Luke; 4:41 and 9:22). Even the angels are referred to as ‘sons of God’: “Now there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the Lord, and Satan also came among them.” (Job;1:6).
Son of Man & Son of God in New Testament: In the Gospels Jesus is reported to have repeatedly called himself “Son of man”(Mathew; 9:6, Luke;). No less than eighty five places term “Son of man” has been mentioned in New Testament. Jesus even rejected being called “Son of God”: “And demons also came out of many, crying, ‘You are the Son of God!’ But he rebuked them, and would not allow them to speak, because they knew that he was the Christ.”(Luke;). God says: “Further to warn those who say "God has begotten a son." They have no knowledge, nor do their forefathers. Dreadful is the word that comes from their mouths. They speak nothing but a lie.”(Qur’an;18:4-5). Hence in the Bible, wherever Jesus, prophets or others are referred as son or sons of God, it is metaphorical and not in literal sense. Consequently claim of divinity of Jesus is not valid.
Jesus Addressed as God, Father: An other argument given to support the divinity of Jesus is that Jesus addressed God as Abba Father, hence he was son of God, so divine: “For ye have not received the spirit of bondage again to fear; but ye have received the Spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father”(Romans;8:15). The Hebrew word Abba-ab-bah';is of Chaldee origin means father, similarly the word used in the ancient Greek script ispat-ayr’; means “father, parent”(literal or figurative, near or more remote). Hence the use of the term abba, “dear father” by Jesus’ should be understood similarly: The word ‘Father’ is used for the ‘God’ or the ‘Lord’ not as biological father but metaphorically in the spiritual sense as The Creator & Sustainer at many places in the Bible: “For all who are led by the Spirit of God, are the sons of God.”(Romans;8:14). “He shall cry unto me, Thou art my father, my God, and the rock of my salvation”(Psalms;89:26), “Be ye therefore perfect, even as your Father which is in heaven is perfect.”(Mathew;5:48),“Take heed that ye do not your alms before men, to be seen of them: otherwise ye have no reward of your Father which is in heaven” (Mathew;6:1); “But you, when you pray, enter into your room, and when you have shut your door, pray to your Father who is in secret; and your Father who sees in secret shall reward you openly.”(Mathew; 6:6),“Be not therefore like them: for your Father knows what things you have need of, before you ask him”(Mathew;6:8);“After this manner therefore pray: Our Father who is in heaven, hallowed be your name”(Mathew; 6:9);“For after all these things do the Gentiles seek: for your heavenly Father knows that ye have need of all these things.” (Mathew; ), Jesus said to Mary; "...go to my brethren, and say to them, I ascend to my Father and your Father; and to my God, and your God...." (John; ).
Metaphorical use of word ‘Father’ in Bible: The metaphorical use of word ‘Father’ is also found with other prophets in Bible, Joseph saying: “And now it was not you sent me here, but God; and he has made me a father to Pharaoh, and Lord of all his house, and governor over all the land of Egypt.”(Genesis;45:8), “… Abraham; for a father of a multitude of nations have I made thee.”(Genesis;17:5), and Job is called the father of the needy (Job;29:16). Again by theologians alluding to Psalms;110, Jesus is a called Priest or a Father of the priesthood, forever. “And the Father himself, which hath sent me, hath borne witness of me. Ye have neither heard his voice at any time, nor seen his shape.”(John;).“And I will pray the Father, and he shall give you another Comforter, that he may abide with you for ever;” (Jhon;). “I can of mine own self do nothing: as I hear, I judge: and my judgment is just; because I seek not mine own will, but the will of the Father which hath sent me”.(John; ).
Even in some of the writings of Paul, which the Church has taken to be sacred, Jesus (peace be upon him) is referred to as a “man”, distinct and different from God. Paul writes: “For there is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus.” (1Timothy;2:5). Prophet Jesus (peace be upon him) did not say that to have the eternal life of paradise, man should believe in him as Almighty God or worship him as God, or believe that Prophet Jesus (peace be upon him) would die for their sins. On the contrary he said that the path to salvation was through keeping the Commandments. It is indeed striking to note the divergence between the words of Prophet Jesus Christ and the Christian dogma of salvation through the sacrifice of Prophet Jesus (peace be upon him). James Barr has recently argued forcefully that it did not have the specially intimate sense that has so often been attributed to it, but that it simply meant “father”. To think of God as “our heavenly Father”(Mathew;6:14) was by no means new, for in the Lord’s prayer Jesus is reported to have taught his disciples to address God in this same familiar way: “Thus therefore pray ye: Our Father who art in the heavens, let thy name be sanctified,”(Mathew;6:9).
Jesus Addressed as Lord: It is argued that since Jesus was addressed as ‘Lord’ and he did not object, hence it proves his divinity. [According to Oxford dictionary, ‘lord’ means: ‘master, lord and master, ruler, leader, chief, monarch, sovereign, king, emperor, prince, governor, commander, captain, overlord, suzerain, baron, potentate, liege, nobleman, peer, aristocrat, feudal lord, landowner, lord of the manor, seigneur; duke, earl, viscount. To believe in the Lord God, Jesus, Jesus Christ, Christ, Christ the Lord, the Redeemer, the Saviour.’] According to a research, the word Lord has been used in New Testament KJV, at 736 places, out of this, at 731 places word Lord is used as translation of Greek [koo’-ree-os; meaning: (supremacy); supreme in authority, i.e. (as noun) controller; by implication Mr. (as a respectful title): God, Lord, master, Sir]. According to ancient Greek scripts, Jesus has been referred respectfully as; koo’-ree-os, translated as ‘Lord’, where as it also means Sir, Mr. (as a respectful title). Hence instead of using Lord for Jesus as one of the meanings of koo’-ree-os, Jesus could have also been addressed as master, Sir or Mr. as a respectful title. Word ‘Lord’ besides being used as a title for God has also been used as respectable title for husband and man of authority or ruler in Old Testament at Genesis;18:12.
In Genesis;44:18-20, the brothers of Joseph addressed him ‘Lord’ as a token of respect because Joseph was holding the seat of high authority in the government of
At five places (Luke;2:29, Acts;4:24, 2Peter;2:1, Jude;1:4, Rev;6:10) word Lord is used as a translation of Greek; des-pot’-ace; meaning: an absolute ruler (“despot”); Lord, master. It is mentioned in New Testament that; Simeon was a righteous and devout man of
“And they cried with a loud voice, saying, How long, O Lord (des-pot’-ace), holy and true, dost thou not judge and avenge our blood on them that dwell on the earth?”(Revlation;). It is evident that the Greek; des-pot’-ace has been translated as Lord for God, ‘husband’ and ‘man of authority’ in Bible. The Greek;koo’-ree-os, has also been translated as Lord for more than one meaning including God, the titles of respect like Mr. Sir and master; which has been used for Jesus, hence it does not support the claim of divinity of Jesus by claimants.
Jesus Called Rabbi; : It is claimed that since Jesus was addressed as Rabbi, hence he was divine: “Now there was one of the Pharisees whose name was Nicodemus a ruler among the Jews. He came to Jesus by night and said, “Rabbi, we know that you are a teacher from God; for no one can do these miracles which you are doing, unless God is with him.”(John;3:1-2). Word ‘Rab’ (Hebrew:) has its origin from Aramaic, meaning : captain, elder, chief, full, great, lord, master, stout, mighty, exceedingly, abundant (in quantity, size, age, number, rank, quality). An expounder of the (Jewish) law is called a Rabbi: doctor (teacher) of the law. Rabbi, as an official title of honor: Master, Rabbi.
Jesus Accepted Worship? Hebrews had various traditions of paying homage and respect, which may be confused to mean ‘worship’. Some have been mentioned in the Bible: Bowing frequently to the ground (Genesis;33:3-4); Falling prostrate on the ground (Esther;8:3; Mathew;2:11; Luke;8:41); Embracing and kissing the feet (Mathew;28:9; Luke;7:38,45); Kissing the dust (Psalms;72:9; Isaiah;49:23). Some example are: And there came two angels to Sodom at even; and Lot sat in the gate of Sodom: and Lot seeing them rose up to meet them; and he bowed himself with his face toward the ground;”(Genesis;19:1); “And he lift up his eyes and looked, and, lo, three men stood by him: and when he saw them, he ran to meet them from the tent door, and bowed himself toward the ground,”(Genesis;18:2); “And the old man said, Peace be with thee; howsoever let all thy wants lie upon me; only lodge not in the street.”(Judges;).
It is reasoned that Jesus is divine because he accepted the worship of some of his followers. Conversely, a closer look at the texts indicates that this view is based on dubious translation and misinterpretation. The term “worship” is found in the narrative mentioned in ‘King James Version’ and ‘The Revised Standard Version’, about three wise men who came from the East. They were reported to have said, “Where is the baby born to be the king of the Jews? We saw his star when it came up in the east, and we have come to worship him.”(Matthew;2:2). The word translated as worship, form the ancient Greek script is ‘pros-koo-neh’-o’ probably derivative of Koo’-Ohn, a primary word; a dog, “hound”, literal or figurative) dog (meaning to kiss, like a dog licking his master’s hand); to fawn or crouch to, i.e. (literal or figurative) prostrate oneself in homage (do reverence to, adore): worship. A careful look at the narrative in perspective reveal that the wise men of east came to see the ‘King of Jews’, not the ‘God of Jews’, the logical meanings of the Greek word proskun’ew’ should be Prostrate Oneself In Homage (do reverence to, adore) as customary done in the East to the kings. The men of East did not say; ‘Where is the baby born to be the God of the Jews? Had they instead of king said ‘God of Jews’, the possibility to WORSHIP him would have had some rationale.
The worship as related to God, is mentioned in an other place in Bible: “We know that God hears not sinners: but if any man be a worshipper of God, and do his will, him he hears. Since the world began it was never heard that any one opened the eyes of a man born blind. If this man were not from God, he could do nothing.”(John;9:31-33). Here besides calling Jesus as a man from God, the word ‘worshipper of God’ is used which is translation of Greek word theh-os-eb-ace’; meaning: reverent of God, i.e. pious - worshipper of God. Hence proper world for worship-related with God in Greek is theh-os-eb-ace’ and not(pros-koo-neh’-o). In continuation of same narrative, the miraculously cured blind man said: “And he said, Lord, I believe. And he worshipped him.”(John;). The word worshipped used here for Jesus, is the translation of Greek word pros-koo-neh’-o also used in verse Matthew;2:2, explained above, meaning Prostrate Oneself In Homage and NOT ‘theh-os-eb-ace’; used to express reverence and worship of God.[Translations from; ‘Greek Dictionary of The New Testament’; by James Strong, S.T.D., LL.D.]
The comparison of different translations of verse of Gospel according to John is self explanatory:
1) “And he said, Lord, I believe. And he worshipped him” (King John’s)
2) “He said, "Lord, I believe"; and he worshiped him”(RSV)
3) “And he said, I believe, Lord: and he did him homage”(Darby Translation: by John Nelson Darby)
4) “I believe, Sir,” he said. And he threw himself at his feet.”(By Richard Francis Weymouth)
5) “and he said, “I believe, sir,’ and bowed before him.” (Young’s Bible 1863: By Robert Young).
The most accurate and relevant translations is found at serial 5), ‘Young’s Bible Translation New Testament 1863 Version: Translated by Robert Young who translated (pros-koo-neh’-o) as bowed and Not as worship.
In The American Bible, the scholarly translators added a footnote that: ‘This verse, omitted in important MSS (manuscripts), may be an addition for a baptismal liturgy. This verse is not found in important ancient manuscripts containing this Gospel. It is probably a later addition made by Church scribes for use in baptismal services’. George M. Lamsa, a renowned authority on the Bible and its original language, elucidate; ‘The Aramaic word seg-eed', worship, also means to bend or to kneel down[cgid, seg-eed'; (Aramaic) worship, corresponding to Hebrew; to prostrate oneself (in homage), fall down].
Easterners in greeting each other generally bowed the head or bent down. ...‘He worshipped him’ does not imply that he worshipped Jesus in a manner as God is worshipped. Such an act would have been regarded as blasphemous and a breach of the First Commandment in the eyes of the Jews, and the man might have been stoned. But he knelt before him in token of homage and gratitude.’ Hence it is appropriate to understand the word worship used in the context for Jesus in the translations of New Testament, to mean ‘bowed in homage and gratitude’.
Jesus Preached to Worship only One God: Jesus Christ repeatedly preached to worship only God: “And Jesus answered and said unto him, It is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve”(Luke;4:8), “But the hour cometh, and now is, when the true worshippers shall worship the Father in spirit and truth: for such doth the Father seek to be his worshippers.(John;4:23),“Not every one who says to me, Lord, Lord, shall enter the kingdom of heaven, but he who does the will of my Father(Islam: Surrender to will of God) who is in heaven On that day many will say to me, ‘Lord, Lord’, did we not prophesy in your name, and cast out demons in your name, and do many mighty works in your name?' And then will I declare to them, ‘I never knew you; depart from me, you evildoers’.”(Mathew;7:21-23). “I John am he who heard and saw these things. And when I heard and saw them, I fell down to worship at the feet of the angel who showed them to me; but he said to me, "You must not do that! I am a fellow servant with you and your brethren the prophets, and with those who keep the words of this book. Worship God [ theh’-os; the Supreme Divinity]”(Revelation;22:8).
The final scripture, the Qur’an, clarifies such issue by quoting a conversation which will take place between Jesus and God on the Day of Judgment: “When God will say: ‘O Jesus, son of Mary, did you tell people: “Worship me and my mother as two gods instead of God?” ’...(Jesus will say): ‘I only told them what You commanded me to say: “Worship God, my Lord and your Lord ...” (Qura’n;5:116-7).
Jesus Performed Miracles with Will of God: The performance of miracles by Jesus does not make him divine because previously many prophets have been performing miracles with the power and authority granted by God. Elisha served small quantity of bread to hundred people to their fill (2Kings;-44), cured leper (2Kings;), and blind (2Kings;-21), raised the dead alive (2Kings;), (2Kings;). Elijah also raised the dead as alive (1Kings;-24). Jesus walked over water, where as Moses took the children of
Jesus and the Prophesies of Isaiah:
Immanuel: It is a common perception among the Christian theologians that the prophesy of advent of Jesus exist in Old Testament in the Book of Isaiah; “Therefore the Lord himself shall give you a sign; Behold, a virgin (al-maw') shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel.”(Issiah;). Here the word virgin is a translation of Hebrew word aw-lam'; means: young woman who is veiled, concealed, hidden, secret, damsel, maid, virgin. In Hebrew; im-maw-noo-ale']means; with us (is) God; Most of the scholars agree that Immanuel, is a type name of Isaiah's son. It is evident that in actual perspective it is being mentioned at; Issiah;7:14, that a young woman will bear a son who shall be called by the name Immanuel. Translating al-maw' as virgin, and name Immanuel in literal sense ‘God is with us,’ is nothing but interpolation, concoction to apply this prophesy to Jesus without any historic and literal justification, as it is well known fact that Jesus was never called Immanuel.
History & Analysis of Prophesies of Isaiah: The historic milieu of the Prophesies of Isaiah have been explained at Encyclopedia Britannica:
During the Syro-Ephraimitic war (734-732 B.C), Isaiah began to challenge the policies of King Ahaz of
Ahaz, however, placed his trust in an alliance with
This Prophesy is Not Applicable to Jesus: As evident from analysis of verse, Isaiah;9:6: Jesus never desired to rule: “Jesus answered, My kingdom is not of this world: if my kingdom were of this world, then would my servants fight, that I should not be delivered to the Jews: but now is my kingdom not from hence.”(John;). “They say unto him, Caesar’s. Then saith he unto them, Render therefore unto Caesar the things that are Caesar’s; and unto God the things that are God’s.”(Mathew;).
The word ‘Mighty God’ is incorrect translation, however ‘God’ is used in Bible for prophets, metaphorically in the sense of power or judge, for example: “And the LORD said unto Moses, See, I have made thee a god to Pharaoh: and Aaron thy brother shall be thy prophet.”(Exodos;7:1); “I have said, Ye are gods; and all of you are children of the most High.”(Psalms;82:6).
The word, ‘Everlasting’ has been used metaphorically indicating long period: “And they shall dwell in the land that I have given unto Jacob my servant, wherein your fathers have dwelt; and they shall dwell therein, even they, and their children, and their children’s children for ever: and my servant David shall be their prince for ever.”(Ezekiel;37:25). “He asked life of thee, and thou gavest it him, even length of days for ever and ever.” (Psalms;21:4).
‘Father’, (Hebrew; awb) father is used in literal or figurative and remote application for forefather or chief. Joseph said: “So now it was not you that sent me hither, but God: and he hath made me a father to Pharaoh, and Lord of all his house, and a ruler throughout all the
The Prophecies of Deutero-Isaiah:
Second Isaiah contains the very expressive so-called Servant Songs. Writing from
Trinity & Preaching to Gentiles:
The concept of God as preached by Jesus is of one God: “And Jesus answered him, The first of all the commandments is, Hear, O Israel; The Lord our God is one Lord: (Mark;12:29), “And, behold, one came and said unto him, Good Teacher, what good thing shall I do, that I may have eternal life? And he said unto him, Why do you call me good? there is none good but one, that is, God: but if you will enter into life, keep the commandments. He said unto him, Which? Jesus said, You shall do no murder, You shall not commit adultery, You shall not steal, You shall not bear false witness, Honor your father and your mother: and, You shall love your neighbor as yourself. The young man said unto him, All these things have I kept from my youth up: what lack I yet? Jesus said unto him, If you will be perfect, go and sell what you have, and give to the poor, and you shall have treasure in heaven: and come and follow me. But when the young man heard that saying, he went away sorrowful: for he had great possessions. Then said Jesus unto his disciples, Verily I say unto you, That a rich man shall hardly enter into the kingdom of heaven.”(Mathew;19:16-23). “One Lord, one faith, one baptism, One God and Father of all, who is above all, and through all, and in you all.(Ephesians;4:5-6).
However the Christians claim divinity of Jesus when, on the basis of: “Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost:”(Mathew;28:19).
An objective analysis, make the claim questionable because, although compiled from the same source, the Gospel according to Mark does not support this view: “And he said unto them, Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature.”(Mark;). Similarly in other books there is no mention of three (members of Trinity): “Then Peter said unto them, Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins, and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost.”(Acts;),“for as yet he had fallen on none of them. They had only been baptized in the name of Christ Jesus.”(Acts;), “And he directed that they should be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ. Then they begged him to remain with them for a time.”(Acts;). Therefore the early Churches did not adopt to baptize in the names of three.
As already mentioned, which is being repeated hare that; the only one verse in the whole of Bible which, the supporters interpreted to supports this Christian dogma and that is: "For there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost; and these three are one."(The first Epistle of John;5:7,8). (in some volumes this changed as: “There are three witnesses, the Spirit, the water, and the blood; and these three agree”. In the foot not of this verse in ‘New International Version Bible’ it is written; ‘not found in any Greek manuscript before the sixteen century. Dr C.I, Scofield, D.D. backed by eight other D.D.'s in a footnote to this verse opine: "It is generally agreed that this verse has no manuscript authority and has been inserted.” The fundamentalist Christians still retain this fabrication whereas; in all the modern translations including the Revised Standard Version (RSV) this pious deceit has been unceremoniously expunged.
Jesus never claimed that he was sent for Gentiles, rather he insisted that he was sent for the Jews: “But he answered and said, I was not sent but unto the lost sheep of the house of
Jesus Did Not Claim to be God: God says:” Certainly they have disbelieved who say: "Christ the son of Mary is God." While Christ himself said: "O children of
“then said Jesus unto him, get thee hence, Satan: for it is written, thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve.”(Mathew;, Luke;4:8)
“Jesus said to her, Touch me not; for I am not yet ascended unto the Father: but go unto my brethren, and say to them, I ascend unto my Father and your Father, and my God and your God.”(John;2017).
According to the Christian scriptures Prophet Jesus (peace be upon him) never claimed divinity. In fact there is not a single unequivocal statement in the entire Bible where Prophet Jesus (peace be upon him) himself says, "I am God" or where he says, "worship me". In fact the Bible contains statements attributed to Prophet Jesus (peace be upon him) in which he preached quite the contrary: "My Father is greater than I." (John;). "My Father is greater than all."(John;). "…I cast out devils by the Spirit of God…." (Mathew;). "…I with the finger of God cast out devils…." (Luke;). "I can of mine own self do nothing: as I hear, I judge: and my judgment is just; because I seek not my own will, but the will of the Father which hath sent me."(John;). Prophet Jesus refuted even the remotest suggestion of his divinity, as evident form Bible: "And behold, one came and said unto him, ‘Good Master, what good thing shall I do, that I may have eternal life?’ And he said unto him, ‘Why callest thou me good? There is none good but one, that is, God: but if thou wilt enter into life, keep the commandments.” (Mathew;19:16-17).
God says in Qur’an: “O people of the Book! Commit no excesses in your religion: nor say of God aught but truth. Christ Jesus the son of Mary was (no more than) an Apostle of God and His Word which He bestowed on Mary and a Spirit proceeding from Him: so believe in God and His Apostles. Say not "Trinity": desist: it will be better for you: for God is One God: glory be to him: (for Exalted is He) above having a son. To him belong all things in the heavens and on earth. And enough is God as a Disposer of affairs.(Qur’an;4:171). “Say: He is God the One and Only; God the Eternal, the Uncaused Cause of All Being; He begets not, and neither is He begotten; and there is nothing that can be compared with Him.”( Qur’an;112:1-4).
Jesus will be questioned in the hereafter: “After reminding him of these favors, God will say: "O Jesus son of Marry, Did you ever say to the people, "worship me and my mother as gods beside God?" He will answer: "Glory to You! How could I say what I had no right to say? If I had ever said so, you would have certainly known it. You know what is in my heart, but I know not what is in Yours; for You have full knowledge of all the unseen. I never said anything other than what You commanded me to say, that is to worship God, Who is my Lord and your Lord. I was a witness over them as long as I remained among them; but when You called me off, You were the Watcher over them and You are a Witness to everything. If You punish them, they surely are Your servants; and if You forgive them, You are Mighty, Wise.”(Qur’an;5:116-118). According to Bible Jesus said: “Not every one who says to me, Lord, Lord, shall enter the kingdom of heaven, but he who does the will of my Father who is in heaven (One word in Arabic for ‘Surrender to will of God’ :Islam:). On that day many will say to me, ‘Master, master’, did we not prophesy in your name, and cast out demons in your name, and do many mighty works in your name?' And then will I declare to them, ‘I never knew you; depart from me, you evildoers’. Therefore whosoever hears these sayings of mine, and does them, I will liken him unto a wise man, who built his house upon a rock: And the rain descended, and the floods came, and the winds blew, and beat upon that house; and it fell not: for it was founded upon a rock. And every one that hears these sayings of mine, and does them not, shall be likened unto a foolish man, who built his house upon the sand: And the rain descended, and the floods came, and the winds blew, and beat upon that house; and it fell: and great was the fall of it.”(Methew;7:21-27). Every one is responsible to use intellect to ascertain the truth, to built ‘House of Faith’ on rock not sand. Jesus Christ said: “Why don't you judge for yourselves what is right?”(Luke;)
What Islam Expects From The Muslims?
· To inhere in their best civilization and matchless culture.
· Should excel in all branches of knowledge. Invite the humanity towards Islam, by conveying the message with wisdom, peacefully, in a logical and convincing way. They should argue with them in ways that are best and most gracious.
· Not to kill the innocent people of any faith (including own self, through suicide) except by law, they don’t have to create mischief on earth.
· Warfare against injustice and oppression and self defence is permissible, by the Islamic State. To use the right of retaliation to any injustice or oppression with equality, not exceeding the limits forgiveness and patience is however preferable.
· Fulfill all bilateral and international accords (like UN Charter) for peace and stability of humanity.
· Non Muslims in the Islamic society enjoy complete protections and freedom to practice their faith, their places of worship be protected.
What is NOT demanded by Islam!
· Not to give up the world altogether.
· Not to be ignorant, nor does it require one to make the mosque a permanent abode, never to leave it.
· Islam also does not insist that one should live in a cave and spend his whole life there ---- Not at all.