Is There A God?
By: Aftab Ahmad Khan
“GOD - there is no deity save Him, the Ever-Living, the Self-Subsistent Fount of All Being. Neither slumber overtakes Him, nor sleep. His is all that is in the heavens and all that is on earth. Who is there that could intercede with Him, unless it be by His leave? He knows all that lies open before men and all that is hidden from them, whereas they cannot attain to aught of His knowledge save that which He wills [them to attain]. His eternal power overspreads the heavens and the earth, and their upholding wearies Him not. And He alone is truly exalted, tremendous.”(
The idea of A Supreme Power who was the First Cause of all things and Ruler of heaven and earth has always been part of human nature from the beginning. He was not represented by images and had no temple or priests in His service. He was too exalted for an inadequate human cult. Hence there had been a primitive monotheism before people had started to worship a number of deities. Generally He faded from the consciousness of his people who formed images of many deities, His assistants, thus began the paganism. The name given to this Divine in English is God. The belief of a Supreme deity who created the world and governs it, still remains among the primitive African tribes. The belief on God was followed by His worship in different cultures. The relation of human beings to God or the gods or to whatever they consider sacred or, in some cases, merely supernatural is known as religion. Each religion have its own set of beliefs generally shared by a community, and they express the communal culture and values through myth, doctrine, and rituals. Worship is probably the most basic element of religion, but moral conduct, right belief, and participation in religious institutions also constitute elements of the religious life. Religions attempt to answer basic questions intrinsic to the human mind like: existence of God, creation of universe and humanity, human sufferings, evil, death and its aftermath etc. The main outwardly focused Abrahamic religions e.g., Judaism (Hebrews), Christianity, and Islam attempt to satisfy human quest through the Revealed knowledge received by the prophets and messengers of God, while inwardly focused religions like Jainism, Buddhism make use of perception of the true nature of reality. While exploring the historic development in theosophical and scientific aspects about The God and The Creation specifically in the three religions linked to Abraham (who was neither Jew nor Christian, rather the one who had totally surrendered in obedience to the will of God), the book is focused upon the origin of Islam, in broader perspective. Hence Islam emerges as true legacy of Abraham contrary to the common perception that it was a new religion founded by Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) fourteen centuries ago.
The beliefs supporting the existence of God or against it, including the middle positions have resulted in to variety of doctrines, the most prominent among them are; Theism, Monotheism, Theodicy, Deism, Agnosticism and Atheism. Theism, is the view that all observable phenomena are dependent on but distinct from one supreme being. The view usually entails the idea that God is beyond human comprehension, perfect and self-sustained, but also peculiarly involved in the world and its events. Theists seek support for their view in rational argument and appeals to experience. A central issue for theism is reconciling God, usually understood as omnipotent and perfect, with the existence of evil. Monotheism; is the belief in the existence of one God. It is distinguished from polytheism. Monotheism is characteristic of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, all of which view God as the creator of the world, who oversees and intervenes in human events, and as a beneficent and holy being, the source of the highest good. Most other religions throughout the history have been polytheistic, believing in numerous gods dominated by a supreme god or by a small group of powerful gods. The monotheism that characterizes Judaism began in ancient Israel with the adoption of Yahweh as the single object of worship and the rejection of the gods of other tribes and nations without, initially, denying their existence. Islam is clear in confessing one, eternal, unbegotten, unequaled God, while Christianity holds that a single God is reflected in the three persons of the Holy Trinity. The Theodicy is an argument for the justification of God, concerned with reconciling God's goodness and justice with the observable facts of evil and suffering in the world. Most such arguments are a necessary component of theism. Under polytheism, the problem is solved by attributing evil to a conflict of wills between deities. The solution is less simple in monotheism, and it can take several forms. In some approaches, the perfect world created by God was spoiled by human disobedience or sin. In others, God withdrew after creating the world, which then fell into decay.
The Deism; is the belief in God based on reason rather than revelation or the teaching of any specific religion. A form of natural religion, Deism originated in England in the early 17th century as a rejection of orthodox Christianity. Deists asserted that reason could find evidence of God in nature and that God had created the world and then left it to operate under the natural laws he had devised. The philosopher Edward Herbert (1583–1648) developed this view in On Truth (1624). By the late 18th century Deism was the dominant religious attitude among Europe's educated classes; it was accepted by many upper-class Americans of the same era, including the first three U.S. presidents. According to the doctrine of Agnosticism; One cannot know the existence of anything beyond the phenomena of experience. It is popularly equated with religious skepticism, and especially with the rejection of traditional Christian beliefs under the impact of modern scientific thought. T.H. Huxley popularized philosophical agnosticism after coining the term agnostic (as opposed to Gnostic) in 1869, to designate one who repudiated traditional Judeo-Christian theism but was not a doctrinaire atheist. Agnosticism may mean no more than the suspension of judgment on ultimate questions because of insufficient evidence, or it may constitute a rejection of traditional Christian tenets. Finally, the Atheism is the critique and denial of metaphysical beliefs in God or divine beings. Unlike agnosticism, which leaves open the question of whether there is a God, atheism is a positive denial. It is rooted in an array of philosophical systems. Ancient Greek philosophers such as Democritus and Epicurus argued for it in the context of materialism. In the 18th century David Hume and Immanuel Kant, though not atheists, argued against traditional proofs for God's existence, making belief a matter of faith alone. Atheists such as Ludwig Feuerbach held that God was a projection of human ideals and that recognizing this fiction made self-realization possible. Marxism exemplified modern materialism. Beginning with Friedrich Nietzsche, existentialist atheism proclaimed the death of God and the human freedom to determine value and meaning. Logical positivism holds that propositions concerning the existence or nonexistence of God are nonsensical or meaningless.
EXISTENCE OF GOD:
The main issue which have remained the center of attention of believers of the existence of God has been; How to prove the existence of God rationally? God is infinite, incomprehensible, His essence is beyond the perception through the human senses and intellect. Infinite can not be comprehended by finite human cognizance. What ever theories about existence of God are evolved, they remain with the ambit of human intellect for understanding in the parables and allegories which remain far from the reality as “there is none comparable to Him”. God is not a ‘being’ like any creatures or thing known to human. Hence the man has reached the conclusion that the God can be comprehended through ‘His works’ or ‘signs’. The God of Abrahamic faiths is Supreme, Creator and Sustainer who created the universe and all creatures. According to the Hebrew traditions the God of their forefathers had been known mostly as El 'Elyon (God Most High) or El Shaddai (God of the Mountain or Almighty God), but He identified Himself to Moses as Yahweh(Jehovah) (Exodus;6:3). As the causative form of the verb "to be," Yahweh means; ‘He Who Creates’ (Brings Into Being). This revelation enabled Moses to understand the God of the Hebrews as the sovereign Lord over nature and the nations of the world. After the Exile (6th century BC), and especially from the 3rd century BC on, Jews ceased to use the name Yahweh for two reasons. As Judaism became a universal religion through its influence in the Greco-Roman world, the more common noun 'elohiym,(el-o-heem) isplural of gods in the ordinary sense; but specifically used (in the plural thus, especially with the article) of the supreme God tended to replace Yahweh to demonstrate the universal sovereignty of Israel's God over all others. At the same time, the divine name was increasingly regarded as too sacred to be uttered; it was thus replaced vocally in the synagogue ritual by the Hebrew word Adonai ("My Lord"), which was translated as Kyrios ("Lord") in the Septuagint, the Greek version of the Old Testament. In Arabic the unique name of God is ‘Allah’ which is pure, does not conjure up any mental picture nor can it be played around with unlike the English word ‘God’. Allah can also be called with other beautiful names suitable to His attributes, Islamic traditions mention ninety nine (number not fixed) names of Allah like; Ar-Rahman (The Merciful), Al- Hayy (The Ever Living), Al-Qayum (The Self-Subsistent): “He is Allah! There is no deity worthy of worship except Him! To Him belong the most beautiful Names.”(Qur’an20:8). The knowledge about God available with the followers of Abraham is not based upon speculation or guess work but what God has Himself revealed about Himself in the Revealed Scriptures (i.e. Torah, Palms, Gospel and Qur’an). God has kept the allowance for limitation of human perceptions hence His description about Himself should not always be taken literally but allegorically. For example He Sees and Hears, it is not to be understood literally, the way human sees eyes and or hears through ears. How God sees or hears, human intellect can not perceive, because He is Unique and there in none like Him.(Qur’an;112:4, Exodus;9:14; Deutronomy;33:26; 2Sameul;7:22; Isaiah;46:5,9). He has not left the world after creation but remains actively involved in its affairs. He desires to humanity to live according to His Commandments, to be judged by Him in Hereafter. Among the followers of the Revealed religions there had not been doubt about the existence of God because the messengers and prophets of God had made the believers to believe in the God through the power of ‘signs’ and Revelations. However with the passage of time there has been deterioration and weaker in faith started to raise questions. The theologians made efforts to satisfy them through the interpretation of scriptures and other rational arguments.
The God of Greek philosophers was very different from the God of Revelations. Socrates (469-399 BC) found it easy to combine his own strong belief in God as ruler of the world with the view that, in practice, one could worship God in the way prescribed by "the usage of the city." God's existence is shown, he held, not only by the providential order of nature and the universality of the belief in him but also by warnings and revelations given in dreams, signs, and oracles. Plato (427-346 BC) believed in the existence of a divine, unchanging reality beyond the world of the senses, that the soul was a fallen divinity, out of its element, imprisoned in the body but capable of regaining its divine status by the purification of the reasoning powers of the mind. The Supreme Deity of Aristotle or Plotinus was timeless and impassible; He took no notice of mundane events, did not reveal Himself in history, had not created the world and would not judge it at the end of time.
Hinduism denotes the Indian civilization of approximately the last 2,000 years, which evolved from Vedism, the religion of the Indo-European peoples who settled in India in the last centuries of the 2nd millennium BC. The Hindus practice polytheism, though some of their scriptures also refer to one God. Generally speaking, Vedic gods share many characteristics: several of them (Indra, Varuna, Vishnu) are said to have created the universe, set the Sun in the sky, and propped apart heaven and Earth. All of them are bright and shining, and all are susceptible to human praise. Some major gods were clearly personifications of natural phenomena, and for these deities no clearly delineated divine personalities were perceived. The three most frequently invoked gods are Indra, Agni, and Soma. Indra, the foremost god of the Vedic pantheon, is a god of war and rain. Agni (a cognate of the Latin ignis) is the deified fire, particularly the fire of sacrifice, and Soma is the intoxicating or hallucinogenic drink of the sacrifice, or the plant from which it is pressed; neither is greatly personified. The concept of transmigration of soul and incarnation also exists.
Rational Arguments for the Existence of God:
The arguments generally adduced by theologians in proof of the being of God are: Firstly the Priori Argument, which is the testimony afforded by reason. Secondly, the Posteriori Argument, by which one proceed logically from the facts of experience to causes. These arguments include (a) The Cosmological, by which it is proved that there must be a First Cause of all things, for every effect must have a cause. (b) The Teleological, or the argument from Design seen all around the operations of an intelligent Cause in nature. (c) Ontological Arguments, that proceeds from the idea of God to the reality of God (d) Morality and Probability Arguments. The other stream of arguments for God’s existence, recently proposed in contemporary western philosophy are the proofs from ‘Religious Experience’. The cosmological argument was first introduced by Aristotle(384-322. B.C) and later refined in western Europe by the celebrated Christian theologian, Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274 CE). The basic first-cause argument states: ‘Every event must have a cause, and each cause must in turn have its own cause, and so forth. Hence, there must either be an infinite regress of causes or there must be a starting point or first cause. The conclusion thus follows that there must be an initial prime-mover, a mover that could cause motion without any other mover; the God.’ Teleology is the use of ultimate purpose or design as a means of explaining natural phenomena. St. Paul, with many others in the Greco-Roman world, believed that the existence of God is evident from the appearances of nature: "Ever since the creation of the world his invisible nature namely, his eternal power and deity, has been clearly perceived in the things that have been made"(Romans;1:20). The extraordinary design is evident from planets and galaxies at the cosmic level to human cells and atoms at the quantum level. Therefore this world must have an intelligent supreme creator. Most Muslim philosophers recognized the Qur’anic emphasis on the uniformity of nature, accepting it as such.
Allah draws the attention of mankind towards His signs: “Verily in the heavens and the earth are Signs for those who believe. (Qur’an;45:3); “And in the creation of yourselves and the fact that animals are scattered (through the earth) are Signs for those of assured Faith. And in the alternation of Night and Day and the fact that Allah sends down Sustenance from the sky and revives therewith the earth after its death and the change of the winds are Signs for those that are wise. (Qur’an;45:4-5). It is pertinent to note that according to Qur’an the ‘reason’ properly used must lead man to cognition of God’s existence and, thus of the fact that a definite plan underlines all His creation; reward for pious believers and punishment for rebellious non believers and sinners: “And they (disbelievers) will add: “Had we but listened (to those warnings). Or (at least) used our own reason, we would not (now) be among those who are destined for the blazing flame!” (Qur’an;67:10). Because Allah says:“Not for (idle) sport did We create the heavens and the earth and all that is between!” (Qur’an;21:16).
Ontological Arguments is developed on the basis that God is a being than which nothing greater can be conceived, a being than which nothing greater can be conceived to exist in our thought. Either a being than which nothing greater can be conceived exists in thought alone and not in reality or a being than which nothing greater can be conceived exists both in thought and in reality. If the greatest conceivable being existed in thought alone we could think of another being existing in both thought and reality. Existing in thought and reality is greater than existing in thought alone. Therefore: A being than which nothing greater can be conceived (God) exists in thought and in reality. Allah says: “For verily it is thy Lord Who is the Master-Creator knowing all things”(Qur’an;15:86), “Allah is Creator of all things, and He is Guardian over all things.”(Qur’an;39:62).The Moral Argument also called the ‘Anthropological Argument’ is based on the moral consciousness and the history of mankind, which exhibits a moral order and purpose which can only be explained on the supposition of the existence of God. Conscience and human history testify that: “Verily there is a reward for the righteous: verily he is a God that judges in the earth.”(Psalms;58:11). “.. Maintaining His creation in justice, there is no God save Him, the Almighty, the Wise.”(Qur’an;3:18), “On that Day, Allah will give them the full reward they deserve, then they will realize that Allah is the One Who manifests the Truth.”(Qur’an;24:25).
Religious experience as proof for existence of God must be understood against the background of a general theory of experience, the reports of the world received through the senses. Experience, as an issue of sensible content, was set in contrast to reason, understood as the domain of logic and mathematics. Specifically religious experience has been variously identified in different ways: (1) The awareness of the holy, which evokes awe and reverence; (2) The feeling of absolute dependence that reveals man's status as a creature; (3) The sense of being at one with the divine; (4) The perception of an unseen order or of a quality of permanent rightness in the cosmic scheme; (5) The direct perception of God; (6) The encounter with a reality "wholly other"; (7) The sense of a transforming power as a presence. Sometimes, as in the striking case of the Old Testament prophets, the experience of God has been seen as a critical judgment on man and as the disclosure of his separation from the holy. All interpreters are agreed that religious experience involves what is final in value for man and concerns belief in what is ultimate in reality. Religious experience may be distinguished from the aesthetic aspect of experience in that the former involves commitment and devotion to the divine, while the latter is focused on the appreciation and enjoyment of qualities, forms, and patterns in themselves, whether as natural objects or works of art. Generally the mystics, lay their claim of having experienced presence of God each in own way. The Islamic traditions support the prophets having such an experience, which make their faith very strong due to firm vision (ain-ul-yaqeen). The night journey of mair’aj by Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) is a unique experience, Allah says: “Glorified be He Who took His servant (Muhammad) one night from Inviolable Place of Worship (Masjid-al-Haram in Makkah) to the Far Distant Place of Worship (Masjid-al-Aqsa in Jerusalem), whose vicinity We have blessed, so that We may show him some of Our signs: surely He is the One Who is the Hearer, the Observer.”(Qur’an;17:1): In the Book of Enoch, (I Enoch), the first treatise (chapters 1-36) also describes Enoch's celestial journeys, in which divine secrets were revealed to him. Yet another example is when Abraham said: "My Lord! Show me how you give life to the dead." He replied: "Have you no faith in this?" Abraham humbly submitted: "Yes! But I ask this to reassure my heart." Allah said: "Take four birds; train them to follow your direction, cut their bodies into pieces and scatter those pieces on hilltops then call them back; Allah will bring them back to life and they will come to you right away. Thus you will know that Allah is All-powerful and Wise.”(Qur’an;2:260).
There are certain things which exist in reality where as their opposite do not exist, but they have been just named due to perception. The ‘Ligh’t exists, the main sources being sun, moon, fire, electricity etc. Its intensity could be very high, moderate or low. The power of light varies, it is measurable through instruments. There is some thing called as ‘Darkness’: Does the Darkness exist? If it does, is there less or more darkness, which could be measured. In fact the darkness does not exist, we can not get a source of darkness like the source of Light. If there is no light there is darkness. It is the absence of light which is called ‘darkness’. The ‘darkness’ is just a perception, a name given to the absence of light. Similarly the ‘sound’ exists, it could be low, medium, and high sound. There are different sources which generating sound, it is measurable, decibel is the unit of its measure. There is some thing called ‘Silence’, it can not be measured, but we call more or less silence. Actually it is the more or less sound which creates more or less silence. We can not have a source of silence, it can not be said that bring so much silence. Silence is just a perception. Analogous is the case of ‘heat’ which exists. There are various sources of heat like, sun, fire, electricity etc. Heat is measurable, through BTU, Kelvin or Celsius units. There could be more, high heat, or less heat. What about ‘Cold’? does it exist? The cold does not exist beyond -273 Co, after this temperature there will not be more cold. Absence of ‘heat’ is ‘cold’, just a perception. The God exists, a reality also evident form preceding arguments, the non existence of God is just a perception !
Qur’an is the last book of guidance revealed to the last Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), it encourages reasoning, discussions and dialogue. The Qur’an contains more than six thousand ayaats (‘Signs’) out of which more than thousand refer to various subjects of science, such as astronomy, physics, geography, geology, oceanology, biology, botany, zoology, medicine, physiology, embryology as well as general science, mostly un known to humanity at the time of its revelation, fourteen centuries ago. It may be kept in view that Qur’an is not a book of ‘science’, but a book of ‘signs’ i.e. a book of ayaats. It is found that the Qur'anic information on science does not conflict with the established scientific facts. It may go against certain scientific hypothesis or theories, which are not based on facts as many a times, the science retracts its position. Many facts mentioned in the Qur’an have been discovered in the last few centuries. But science has not advanced to a level where it can confirm every statement of the Qur’an referring to scientific information. According to Dr.Zakir Naik; suppose 80% of all that is mentioned in the Qur’an has been proved 100% correct, while for the remaining 20%, science makes no categorical statement, since it has not advanced to a level, where it can either prove or disprove these statements. With the limited knowledge through science available today one cannot say for sure whether even a single percentage or a single verse of the Qur’an from this 20% portion is wrong. Thus when 80% of the Qur’an is 100% correct and the remaining 20% is not disproved, logic says that even the 20% portion is correct. The details of scientific facts mentioned in Qur’an have been deliberated upon in the book ‘Qur’an and Science’ by Dr.Zakir Naik & "The Bible, The Qur'an and Science" by Dr. Maurice Bucaille, a French doctor.
MONOTHEISM : TAWHID :
Abraham, the great ancestor of Jews, Christians and Muslims, through his vision, reasoning and Mercy of God, arrived at the truth of the existence of One God. It is narrated in Qur’an, God says: “We showed Abraham the kingdom of the heavens and the earth, as We show you with examples from nature, so he became one of the firm believers. (while pondering) When the night drew its shadow over him, he saw a star and said, "this is my Lord !" But when it set, he said: "I do not love to worship such a god that fades away." Afterwards he saw the moon shining, he said; "This is my Lord !" But when it also set, he cried: "If my Lord does not guide me, I shall certainly become one of those who go astray." Then when he saw the sun with its brighter shine, and he said: "This must be my Lord! it is larger than the other two." But when it also set, he exclaimed: "O my people! I am done with your practice of associating partners with God. As far as I am concerned, I will turn my face, being upright, to Him Who has created the heavens and the earth, and I am not one of the idolaters."(Qur’an;6:75-78).
Islam is based on the strict adherence to monotheism (The doctrine or belief that there is only one God) called Tawhid, which was preached by Abraham; Allah, the One and Only God, the Creator, Cherisher and Sustainers of all the Worlds: “And He is Allah: there is no god but He. To him be praise at the first and at the last: for Him is the Command and to Him shall ye (all) be brought back.”(Qur’an;28:70);“Thus said the LORD the King of Israel, and his redeemer the LORD of hosts; I am the first, and I am the last; and beside me there is no God.”(Isaiah;44:6); "No just estimate have they made of Allah: for Allah is He Who is strong and able to carry out His Will" (Qur’an;22:74). Abraham said: "For me I, have set my face firmly and truly toward Him Who created the heavens and the earth, and never shall I give partners to Allah."(Qur’an;6:79). Moses (peace be upon him) said: “Shama Israelu Adonai Ila Hayno Adna Ikhad ”[“Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God is one Lord”] (Deuteronomy;6:4). Jesus (peace be upon him) also believed in One God, when he said: “Shama Israelu Adonai Ila Hayno Adna Ikhad ”[“Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God is one Lord”](Mark;12:29) and Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) was commanded: “Your God is one God; there is no one worthy of worship except Him, the Compassionate, the Merciful.(Qur’an;2:163). Tawhid, the basis of Islam, needs deep understanding. Tawhid relates to the oneness of God, in the sense that He is one and there is no god but He, as stated in the shahadah ("witness") creed: "There is no one worthy of worship except Allah (God) and Muhammad (peace be upon him) is His messenger". Tawhid further refers to the nature of that God, that He is a unity, not composed, not made up of parts, but simple and uncompounded: Say, He is the One God” (Qura’n;112:1). The doctrine of the unity of God and the issues that it raises, such as the question of the relation between the essence and the attributes of God, reappear throughout most of Islamic history. Tawhid can not be visualized in a pantheistic sense: (Pantheism; a doctrine identifying the Deity with the universe and its phenomena) that it is wrong to say that; “all essences are divine, and there is no absolute existence besides that of God”. To majority Muslims, the science of Tawhid is the systematic theology through which a better knowledge of God may be reached.
Monotheism in Bible:
The existence of God is taken for granted in the Bible. There is nowhere any argument to prove it. The miracles and signs by the messengers and prophets were enough to satisfy the followers. However even then immediately after coming out of Egypt under miraculous circumstances the Israelites indulged in the worship of calf. He who disbelieves the truth of God, is spoken of as one devoid of understanding: “The fool hath said in his heart, There is no God. They are corrupt, they have done abominable works, there is none that doeth good.”(Psalms;14:1). The First Commandment declared in the Old Testament as well as New Testament states the Oneness of God (Deuteronomy;6:4, Mark;12:29);“He is the Rock, his work is perfect: for all his ways are judgment: a God of truth and without iniquity, just and right is he.”(Deuteronomy;32:4). The infinite nature of God is indicated explicitly: “Then Moses said to God, "If I come to the people of Israel and say to them, ‘The God of your fathers has sent me to you,’ and they ask me, ‘What is his name?’ what shall I say to them? God said to Moses, "I AM WHO I AM." (Ehyeh asher ehyeh)...”(Exodus;3:13-14). So when Moses asks who he is, God replies in effect: ‘Never you mind who I am!’ Or ‘Mind your own business!’ There was to be no discussion on God’s nature and certainly no attempt to manipulate him as pagans sometimes did when they recited the names of their gods. Yahweh is the Unconditioned One: I shall be that which I shall be. He will be exactly as he chooses and will make no guarantees.
God's attributes are spoken of by some as ‘Absolute’, i.e., such as belong to his essence as Jehovah, Jah, etc.; and Relative, i.e., such as are ascribed to him with relation to his creatures. Others distinguish them into ‘Communicable’, i.e. those which can be imparted in degree to his creatures: goodness, holiness, wisdom, etc.; and ‘Incommunicable’, which cannot be so imparted: independence, immutability, immensity, and eternity. They are by some also divided into ‘Natural Attributes’, eternity, immensity, etc.; and Moral, holiness, goodness, etc. The attributes of God are set forth in order by Moses: “And the LORD passed by before him, and proclaimed, The LORD, The LORD God, merciful and gracious, longsuffering, and abundant in goodness and truth, Keeping mercy for thousands, forgiving iniquity and transgression and sin, and that will by no means clear the guilty; visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, and upon the children's children, unto the third and to the fourth generation.”(Exodus;34:6-7).
In the Bible, God is declared to be; Eternal (Deutronomy;33:27; Psalms;90:2), Immortal (1Timothy;1:17;6:16), Light (Isaiah;60:19; James; 1:17, 1John;1:5), Invisible (Job;23:8-9) Un-searchable (Job;11:7; 37:23;Psalms; 145:3; Isaiah; 40:28; Romans; 11:33), Incorruptible (Romans;1:23), Absolute sovereign (Daniel;4:25,35), Omnipotent (Geneses17:1; Exodus;6:3), Omniscient (Psalms;139:1-6; Proverbs;5:21), Omnipresent (Psalms;139:7; Jeremiah;23:23), Immutable (Psalms;102:26-27), Glorious. (Exodus;15:11; Psalms;145:5), Most High (Psalms;83:18; Acts;7:48), Perfect (Mathew; 5:48, Job;36:4; 37:16), Holy (Psalms;99:9; Isaiah;5:16), Just (Deutronomy;32:4; Isaiah;45:21), True (Jermiah;10:10), Upright (salms;25:8; 92:15), Righteous (Ezra;9:15; Psalms;145:17), Good (Psalms;25:8; 119:68), His being alone good. (Mathew;19:17). Great (Psalms;86:10), Gracious (Exodus;34:6, Psalms;116:5), Merciful (Exodus;34:6-7), Long-suffering (Numbers;14:18; Micah;7:1), Jealous (Joshua;24:19; Nahum;1:2), Compassionate (2Kiings;13:23), None beside Him (Deutronomy;4:35; Isaiah;44:6), None before Him (Isaiah;43:10), None like to Him (Exodus;9:14; Deutronomy;33:26; 2Samuel;7:22; Isaiah;46:5,9), Fills heaven and earth (1Kings;8:27; Jeremiah;23:24). Should be worshipped in spirit and in truth. (John;4:24), A consuming fire (Hebrews;12:29). His being alone possessed of foreknowledge (Isaiah;46:9-11). His being the sole object of worship in heaven and earth. (Nehemia;9:6; Mathew;4:10). His being the only Saviour. (Isaiah;45:21-22). His being the only source of pardon. (Micah;7:18; Mark;2:7). He is Mighty (Job;36:5),Universal (Job;28:24; Daniel;2:22; Act;15:18), Infinite (Psalms;147:5; Romans;11:33), Wonderful, Beyond human comprehension (Psalms;139:6), Incomparable (Isaiah;44:7; Jeremiah;10:7) and Underived. (Job;21:22; Isaiah;40:14). The idol worship is condemns in the Old Testament"(Exodus;20:3-5, Deuteronomy;5:7-9). According to Bible Adam was created in the image of God (Geneses;1;26-27,5:1), but an other place it is mentioned: “I am God, and there is none like me.”(Isaiah;46:9). Some theologians have interpreted ‘image’ as ‘vicegerent’. Allah says in Qur’an:“We have indeed created man in the best stature;”(95:4). Islam reject to believe that Allah's attributes are similar to those of his creatures; or that Allah's attributes are like such and such because; “there is none like unto Him.”(Qura’n;112:4).
However Bible narrate certain attributes, of God like His creatures, which are not befitting to the elegance, grace and greatness of The Supreme Creator and Sustainer, they appear to contract the attributes of God mentioned at other places in Bible mentioned just above. Some examples are: “And they heard the voice of Jehovah God walking in the garden in the cool of the day: and the man and his wife hid themselves from the presence of Jehovah God amongst the trees of the garden.”(Genesis;3:8), “And Jehovah God called unto the man, and said unto him, Where art thou?(Genesis;3:9). Repentance by God:” And it repented Jehovah that he had made man on the earth, and it grieved him at his heart”(Genesis;6:6), “Thou hast rejected me, said Jehovah, thou art gone backward: therefore have I stretched out my hand against thee, and destroyed thee; I am weary with repenting.”(Jeremiah;15:6). God shaving like a "barber": “In that day will the Lord shave with a razor that is hired in the parts beyond the River, even with the king of Assyria, the head and the hair of the feet; and it shall also consume the beard.”(Isaiah;7:20) God showing his back parts to Moses: “And I (God) will take away my hand and thou shalt see my back parts …“(Exodus;33:23). God "riding" a cherub: “And he rode upon a cherub, and did fly; Yea, he was seen upon the wings of the wind.”(2 Samuel;22:11). There are some other contradictory attributes of God, at some places God saying that no one can see Him: “No man hath seen God at any time”(John;1:18), “(God) whom no man hath seen, nor can see”(I Timothy;6:16), “And he (God) said, Thou canst see my face: for there shall no man see me, and live”(Exodus;33:20). It is contradicted at other verses: “And they (Moses, Aaron and seventy others) saw the God of Israel”(Exodus;24:10), “And the Lord spoke unto Moses face to face, as a man speaks unto his friend”(Exodus;33:11). A very strange incidence is narrated, that Jacob wrestled with God and prevailed: “And Jacob was left alone; and there wrestled a man with him until the breaking of the day. And when he saw that he prevailed not against him, he touched the hollow of his thigh; and the hollow of Jacob’s thigh was strained, as he wrestled with him. And he said, Let me go, for the day breaketh. And he said, I will not let thee go, except thou bless me. And he said unto him, What is thy name? And he said, Jacob. And he said, Thy name shall be called no more Jacob, but Israel: for thou hast striven with God and with men, and hast prevailed. And Jacob asked him, and said, Tell me, I pray thee, thy name. And he said, Wherefore is it that thou dost ask after my name? And he blessed him there. And Jacob called the name of the place Peniel: for, said he, I have seen God face to face, and my life is preserved.”(Genese;32:24-30).
New Innovation: The complex doctrine of “Trinitarianism” called as ‘Trinitarian Monotheism” was the new innovation by Paul againnst the monotheistic teachings of Old Testament and Propeht Jesus (peace be uponhim). According to this docrine; God is considered to consist of three persons, TheFather (God), the Son (Jesus), and the Holy Spirit as One. Trinity is totally opposed to monotheisim preached by Abraham, which Jews, Christians and Muslims claim to follw.The use of the terminology ‘son of God’ and Father (for God) need to be understood as per its use among Hebrews and the Bilbe. The Hebrews believed that God is One, and had neither wife nor children in any literal sense, hence it is obvious that the expression “son of God” merely meant to them “Servant of God”; the one who, because of his faithful service, was close and dear to God, as a son is to a father. Christians who came from a Greek and Roman background, later misused this term. In the Greek-Roman heritage, “son of God” signified an incarnation of a god or someone born of a physical union between male and female gods. When the Church cast aside its Hebrew foundations, it adopted the pagan concept of “son of God”, which was entirely different from the Hebrew usage, just to make the new faith familiar and acceptable to new gentile converts of pagan origin. Consequently, the use of the term “son of God” should only be understood from the Semitic symbolic sense of a “servant of God”, and not in the pagan sense of a literal offspring of God. In the four Gospels, Jesus is recorded as saying: “Blessed are the peace-makers; they will be called sons of God.”(Mathew;5:9). Son of God has been used numerously in the Old & New Testaments in similar sense: Hosea;1:10, Jeremiah;31:9, Job;2:1,38:4-7, Genesis;6:2, Deuteronomy;14:1, , Exodus;4:22-23, 2Samuel;8:13-14, Psalms;2:7, Book of Job;1:6, Luke; 3:38, 9:22 & 4:41. Likewise use of the term abba, “dear father” by Jesus’ when he said: “For ye have not received the spirit of bondage again to fear; but ye have received the Spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father”. (Romans; 8:15), should be understood similarly, because the word ‘Father’ is used for the ‘God’ or the ‘Lord’ not as biological father but in the spiritual sense as The Creator & Sustainer: “For all who are led by the Spirit of God, are the sons of God.” (Romans;8:14). “He shall cry unto me, Thou art my father, my God, and the rock of my salvation”(Psalms;89:26), “Be ye therefore perfect, even as your Father which is in heaven is perfect.” (Mathew;5:48, 6:1,6,8,9,32), (John; 5:30, 5:37, 14:16, 20:17), (Isaiah; 9:6 ). Moreover word ‘Father’ has also been used as a token of reverence and domination: Joseph is called a father to Pharaoh (Genesis; 45:8), Abraham is called the father of a multitude of nations (Genesis;17:5), and Job is called the father of the needy (Job;29:16). Again by theologians alluding to Psalms 110; Jesus is a called Priest or a Father of the priesthood, forever. The only person who has blasphemously been given attributes like God is Melchisedec: “For this Melchisedec, king of Salem, priest of the most high God, who met Abraham returning from the slaughter of the kings, and blessed him; To whom also Abraham gave a tenth part of all; first being by interpretation King of righteousness, and after that also King of Salem, which is, King of peace; Without father, without mother, without descent, having neither beginning of days, nor end of life; but made like unto the Son of God; abideth a priest continually. Now consider how great this man was, unto whom even the patriarch Abraham gave the tenth of the spoils.” (Hebrews;7:1-4). In the literal sense Melchisedec, appears to be higher than Jesus!
Rejection of Trinity by Early Chrisitans: According to doctrine of Christianity, God literally became incarnate as a human in the form of son i.e. Jesus Christ. This "Trinitarian Monotheism" has been rejected by several Christian denominations and Christian-based religions. Arianism, was founded by the Alexandrian presbyter Arius (4th century), according to his doctrine, God alone is immutable and self-existent, and the Son is not God but a creature with a beginning. The Council of Nicaea (325 C.E) condemned Arius and declared the Son to be “of one substance with the father.” Arianism had numerous defenders for the next 50 years but eventually collapsed when the Christian emperors of Rome Gratian and Theodosius assumed power. The First Council of Constantinople (381 C.E) approved the Nicene Creed and proscribed Arianism. However it continued among the Germanic tribes through the 7th century, and similar beliefs are held in the present day by the Jehovah's Witnesses and by some adherents of Unitarianism. The Strict Unitarian Christians believe that God, the Father, to be unipersonal, the only divine being, salvation to be granted to the entire human race, and that the Reason and Conscience to be the criteria for belief and practice while some others believe that Jesus is a created deity. Jehovah's Witnesses, for example, do not religiously worship the Logos (Jesus), but they believe that the Father created the worlds by means of the Logos.
It is striking that the basic teachings of the Church such as Trinity and Vicarious Atonement find no mention in the Bible. There is not a single unambiguous statement in the entire Bible where Prophet Jesus (peace be upon him) himself says, "I am God" or where he says, "worship me" rather he said: “..There is none good but one, that is, God..”(Mathew;19:17). The only single verse in the whole of Bible which, the supporters of Trinity interpreted to supports this Christian dogma that: "For there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost; and these three are one."(The first Epistle of John; 5:7,8). (in some volumes this verse is written as : “There are three witnesses, the Spirit, the water, and the blood; and these three agree”. In the foot note of this verse in ‘New International Version Bible’ it is written; ‘not found in any Greek manuscript before the sixteen century’. Dr C.I, Scofield, D.D. backed by eight other D.D.'s in a footnote to this verse opine: "It is generally agreed that this verse has no manuscript authority and has been inserted. "The fundamentalist Christians still retain this fabrication whereas, in all the modern translations including the Revised Standard Version (RSV) this pious deceit has been unceremoniously expunged. On the contrary Jesus (peace be upon him) also said: “Shama Israelu Adonai Ila Hayno Adna Ikhad ”[“Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God is one Lord”](Mark;12:29). In fact, various verses of the Bible point to the actual mission of Jesus (peace be upon him), which was to fulfill the Commandments and the Law revealed to Prophet Moses (peace be upon him) (Mathew; 5:17,18,19). Indeed Prophet Jesus (peace be upon him) rejected any suggestions that attributed divinity to him, and explained his miracles as the power of the One True God. Prophet Jesus (peace be upon him) thus reiterated the message of monotheism that was given by all earlier prophets of God.
Islam toltallly despise the Trinity, for it is mentioned in Qur’an:“They do blaspheme who say: Allah is one of three in a Trinity: for there is no god except One Allah. If they desist not from their word (of blasphemy) verily a grievous penalty will befall the blasphemers among them.”(Qur’an;5:73). “O people of the Book! Do not overstep the bounds [of truth] in your religious beliefs, and do not say of God anything but the truth. The Christ Jesus, son of Mary, was but God's Apostle - [the fulfillment of] His promise which He had conveyed (kalimah, "word") unto Mary - and a soul created by Him. Believe, then, in God and His apostles, and do not say, "[God is] a trinity". Desist [from this assertion] for your own good. God is but One God; utterly remote is He, in His glory, from having a son: unto Him belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is on earth; and none is as worthy of trust as God.”(Qur’an;4:171). M. Asad logically explains this verse: "His word which He conveyed unto Mary and a soul from Him". According to Tabari, the "word" (kalimah) was "the announcement (risalah) which God bade the angels to convey to Mary, and God's glad tiding to her" (Qur’an;3:45) - which justifies the rendering of kalimatuhu as "[the fulfilment of] His promise". As regards the expression, "a soul from Him" or "created by Him", it is to be noted that among the various meanings which the word ruh bears in the Qur’an (e.g., "inspiration" in Qur’an;2:87, 253), it is also used in its primary significance of "breath of life", "soul", or "spirit": thus, for instance, in Qur’an;32:9, where the ever-recurring evolution of the human embryo is spoken of: "and then He forms him [i.e., man] and breathes into him of His spirit" - that is, endows him with a conscious soul which represents God's supreme gift to man and is, therefore, described as "a breath of His spirit". The verse (Qur’an;4:171) stresses the purely human nature of Jesus and refutes the belief in his divinity, the Qur’an points out that Jesus, like all other human beings, was "a soul created by Him".
Opposite to Tawhid is Shirk (associating partners with God), means polytheism, and the association of God with other deities. Shirk is considered synonymous with any belief or practice rejected by Islam. The Qur'an stresses in many verses that God does not share his powers with any partner (sharik): Say: "My Lord has forbidden only indecencies whether , such of them as are apparent and such as are within, and sin and wrongful oppression, and that you associate with Allah (shirk) for which He has granted no sanction, and saying things about Allah of which you have no knowledge.”(Qur’an;7:33); “Never has Allah begotten a son, nor is there any god besides Him. Had it been so, each god would govern his own creation, and each would have tried to overpower the others. Exalted be Allah, above the sort of things they attribute to Him!”(Qur’an;23:91). The shirk is distinguished, by different grades apart from pure and blatant polytheism. The shirk al-'adah ("shirk of custom"), which includes all superstitions, such as the belief in omens and the seeking of help from soothsayers. Shirk al-ibadah ("shirk of worship") is manifested in the belief in the powers of created things, the reverencing of saints (An act showing respect by bowing, only reserved for Allah), kissing holy stones (except black stone at Ka’bah), and asking to grant favours from dead or alive people (grant of favours is only by Allah), "shirk of knowledge" (shirk al-'ilm) is to credit anyone, such as astrologers and palmists etc with the knowledge of the future. All of these types of shirk are shirk saghir ("minor shirk") in comparison with polytheism. The Muslims totally reject all types of Shirk and Kufir (Disbelief), they firmly believe in Tawhid, ONE GOD, Supreme and Eternal, Infinite and Mighty, Merciful and Compassionate, Creator and Provider. God has neither father nor mother, no sons nor was He fathered. None is equal to Him. Allah is the God of Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and all mankind; He is not the God of a special tribe or race. He is the Creator of all human beings. He is the God for the Christians, the Jews, the Muslims, the Buddhists, the Hindus, the atheists, and all others. He extends His favours in this world to all, believers or non-believers as a test, which is part of His Wisdom and Plan.
God created humanity and formed nations and tribes, He says: “O mankind! We created you from male and female, and made you into nations and tribes that you might get to know one another.(Qur’an;49:13). He provided guidance through His messengers: “And verily We have raised in every nation a messenger, (proclaiming): Serve Allah and shun false gods. Then some of them whom Allah guided, and some of them (there were) upon whom error had just hold….”(Qur’an;16:36). Hence in the major religions the traces of monotheism (Tawhid) are still found in the scripture even if not practiced. Hinduism is commonly perceived as a polytheistic religion because the common Hindus are observed worshiping many gods. However Hindus, well versed in their scriptures, insist that a Hindu should believe in and worship only one God. The sacred Hindu scriptures, urge monotheism (Tawhid): “Those whose intelligence has been stolen by material desires surrender unto demigods and follow the particular rules and regulations of worship according to their own natures.”(Bhagavad Gita;7:20).“He is One only without a second.” (Chandogya: Upanishad; 6:2:1), “Of Him there are neither parents nor lord.” (Svetasvatara:Upanishad;6:9),“There is no likeness of Him.”(Svetasvatara:Upanishad;4:19), “His form is not to be seen; no one sees Him with the eye.” (Svetasvatara:Upanishad;4:20). According to Vedas: “There is no image of Him.” (Yajurveda;32:3),“He is body less and pure.”(Yajurveda;40:8), “They enter darkness, those who worship the natural elements (Air, Water, Fire, etc.). They sink deeper in darkness, those who worship sambhuti (created things, for example table, chair, idol, etc).” (Yajurveda;40:9), “O friends, do not worship anybody but Him, the Divine One. Praise Him alone.”(Rigveda;8:1:1).The Brahma Sutra of Hinduism is: “There is only one God, not the second; not at all, not at all, not in the least bit.” (Ekam Brahm, dvitiya naste neh na naste kincha).
ALLAH, THE ONLY GOD OF ALL:
Islam demands faith in Allah on the basis of knowledge and research and leaves wide open all field of thought before the human intellect to penetrate as far it can reach. “Say: "It is He Who has created you (and made you grow) and made for you the faculties of hearing seeing feeling and understanding: little thanks it is ye give.”(Qur’an;67:23). “They (non believers) will further say: "Had we but listened or used our intelligence we should not (now) be among the Companions of the Blazing Fire!”(Qur’an;67:10). Islam stresses to firmly believe in Allah (one God), the Lord of the worlds, submit to Him and worship Him only (in Islam). Qur’an repeatedly draws the attention of man towards existence of God thorough various ‘Signs’ and other arguments. Islamic philosophers of the middle ages did not address the problem of existence of God in any direct fashion. This maybe because in the context of Muslim thought, the existence of God was a prerequisite. However it is evident that the orderly and wonderful phenomena of nature could not be purposeless and accidental. It is pertinent to note that according to Qur’an the ‘reason’ properly used must lead man to cognition of God’s existence and, thus of the fact that a definite plan underlines all His creation; reward for pious believers and punishment for rebellious non believers and sinners.
Muslims put their trust in Allah and they seek His help and His guidance. God is High and Supreme but He is very near to the pious thoughtful believers; He answers their prayers and helps them. He loves the people who love Him and forgives their sins. He gives them peace, happiness, knowledge and success. A Muslim has to believe in Allah, His Angels, His Books, His Messengers, the Day of Judgment, and Fate whether good or bad. Belief in Allah's Lordship, Oneness, and Attributes: Allah's is the sole Divine; that is He is the Lord, the Creator, the Sovereign, and the Manager of all affairs. Allah is the only true God and every other so-called deity is false. He is One (Ahad), that is, He has no associate in His divinity, His Godhood, His names, or in His attributes. Allah says in the Qur'an: "He is the Lord of the heavens and the Earth and all that is in between them, so worship Him and be patient in His worship; do you know any equal to Him?" (Qur’an;19:65). He is; “Allah there is no God but He, the Living, the Everlasting. Slumber does not seize Him, neither sleep; to Him belongs all that is in the heavens and the Earth. Who is there that shall intercede with Him except by His permission? He knows what is before them and what is behind them, and they do not encompass anything of His knowledge except what He wills. His throne extends over the heavens and the Earth, the preservation of them does not burden Him; He is the High, the Great” (Qur’an;2:255). “He is Allah, there is no god but He, the Knower of the Unseen and the Visible. He is the Most Gracious, Most Merciful. He is Allah, there is no God but He, the King, the Holy One, the Source of Peace, the Keeper of Faith, the Guardian, the Almighty, the Subduer, the Sublime. Glory be to Allah above what they associate with Him. He is Allah, the Creator, the Maker, the Shaper. His are the most beautiful Names. All that is in the heavens and the Earth glorifies Him. He is the Almighty, the Wise” (Qur’an;59:22-24).
ATTRIBUTES OF GOD:
The Attributes, Words and Signs and Mercies of Allah are in all Creation, and can never be fully set out in human language, however extended our means may imagined to be, Allah says: “Say: "If the ocean were ink (wherewith to write out) the words of my Lord sooner would the ocean be exhausted than would the words of my Lord even if we added another ocean like it for its aid.”( Qur’an;18:109). However all that is mentioned about Allah's attributes, whether briefly or in detail and affirmatively or negatively, based on Qur'an, and the traditions of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) are final some are also mentioned in Bible. It also agrees with the practice of the previous generations of Muslims and the rightly guided scholars who came after them. It is obligatory for a Muslim to take the texts of the Qur'an and the prophetic traditions conceding Allah's attributes at their face value and to interpret them in a way that is suitable to Almighty Allah. The practice of those who twist the meanings of these texts and understand them in a way that was not intended by Allah and His messenger is rejected.
Qur’an;2: 255). “Say: He is Allah the One and Only; God the Eternal, the Uncaused Cause of All Being ; He begets not, and neither is He begotten; And there is nothing that can be compared with Him.”(Qur’an;112:1-4).“Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God is one Lord”(Moses, Deuteronomy;6:4; Jesus,Mark;12:29). “Wherefore thou art great, O LORD God: for there is none like thee, neither is there any God beside thee,”(2 Samuel;7:22 ),“And he (Jesus) said unto him, Why you call me good? there is none good but one, that is, God: but if you want to enter into life, keep the commandments.”(Matthew;19:17)
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